[All About Exynos] ③ A Deeper Look at Modem, Connectivity and Security in Telecommunication – Samsung Global Newsroom



Supporting Quick, Clean Telecommunication Wherever: The Extremely-Excessive Performing Modem with AI Know-how


The time period “modem” encompasses all sorts, from the dial-up modems used within the Nineties to attach PCs to the Web, to wired communication modems like digital subscriber line (DSL) and cable, to wi-fi communication modems for mobile service and Wi-Fi. Nevertheless, once we speak about modems in the present day within the cell business, the time period normally refers to mobile modems for wi-fi communication that help LTE and 5G.


In a smartphone, the terminal modem is accountable for making calls and transmitting and receiving knowledge by exchanging indicators with base stations. The explanation we will make calls and seamlessly watch movies anyplace is all due to high-performing mobile modems. Immediately, the most recent mobile modems help applied sciences from 2G to 5G. 


Mobile modems have been first used for 1G when solely telephone calls might be made utilizing the analog communication methodology. Within the 2G period, the digital communication methodology1 was launched, and extra companies such because the quick message service (SMS) turned doable. 3G enabled the usage of the Web on cell phones, laying the inspiration for cell broadband,2 and 4G ushered within the true cell broadband period that made seamlessly watching HD movies doable. The velocity of 5G, which Korea was first on this planet to commercialize in 2019, now reaches the 10Gbps degree, and varied purposes apart from cell units are being created utilizing this low-latency and hyper-connectivity know-how. 


▲ A comparability of the traits of various cell communication generations.


With the arrival of the LTE period, knowledge transmission speeds have develop into remarkably increased, and cell phones can now present features nearly an identical to these offered by computer systems. Having experimented with creating its personal modem earlier than the 2000s, Samsung Electronics started creating an LTE modem chip in earnest in 2007 and have become the primary on this planet to reach LTE modem commercialization in 2009, after mastering 2G and 3G applied sciences.


▲ The communication course of between a modem and a base station.


In 2012, the Galaxy S sequence was outfitted with Samsung’s LTE modems for the primary time. In 2019, the 5G-integrated SoC Exynos, the primary ever chip to mix a 5G communication modem and a cell AP, was developed. Exynos improved vitality effectivity by combining two chips with totally different features into one in addition to the convenience of design for smartphone producers by lowering the world taken up by the element. At the moment, Exynos’ 5G3 modem helps not solely the sub-6GHz band but additionally extraordinarily excessive frequency bands (i.e., mmWave), resembling 28GHz and 39GHz. Because of this, sub-6GHz will increase service protection, and ultra-high-speed communication is obtainable with mmWave close to base stations. 


Immediately, Samsung is without doubt one of the world’s prime three 5G modem design corporations. “Usually, the method for creating a modem is sophisticated as a result of it should help new know-how like 5G and already commercialized applied sciences like 3G and LTE. Because it additionally requires a major funding, there are solely a handful of modem chip corporations on this planet,” stated Vice President Jungwon Lee, a sign processing knowledgeable who presently leads the Modem Growth Crew within the System LSI Enterprise after working at Samsung DS America and at Samsung Analysis America. “It’s an space that additionally requires a whole lot of growth time, from algorithm growth to chip design, software program growth and subject testing.”


▲ Vice President Jungwon Lee (proper) and PL Huiwon Je (left) of the Modem Growth Crew try to enhance the event efficiency of mobile modems.


Samsung is conducting subject exams in international locations all over the world to enhance service protection as a lot as doable and making varied efforts to enhance the baseband sign processing methodology, together with the usage of synthetic intelligence (AI) know-how to extend transmission speeds. Because of this, the corporate efficiently created a modem that makes use of AI algorithms final 12 months, though it’s but to be commercialized. “Modems with AI know-how can promote efficiency enhancements by minimizing the processing of interference indicators or growing vitality effectivity via the usage of AI processors,” stated Lee.


Along with 5G, Samsung is presently actively engaged on the event of 6G know-how. “Proper now, we’re targeted on creating the world’s finest 5G modem and 5G-Superior modem, and we’re making ready for 6G modem know-how analysis in collaboration with Samsung DS America and Samsung Analysis for the approaching 6G period,” stated Lee. His achievements in modem sign processing know-how have been acknowledged when he was chosen as a Fellow of the IEEE.4


“6G modems are anticipated to allow 1Tbps-level speeds, help varied communication networks together with satellite tv for pc communication, and be extensively utilized in varied purposes, resembling cars, IoT and AR/VR — going far past smartphones,” he stated. “To pave the best way for the 6G period, we will need to have the backing and help of assorted frequency bands, together with the terahertz (THz) band, multi-antenna help for at the least tons of of antennas, superior AI know-how and communication community sign effectivity know-how.


In the meantime, Lee is main the best way for Samsung as the corporate goals to create the most effective modem for Android. “We’re increasing our 5G enterprise within the quick run whereas striving to safe a number one place early on within the 6G period within the medium to long-term,” he stated. Samsung plans to drastically improve the headcount of the Modem Growth Crew to enhance such efficiency and to increase associated enterprise markets. 



“I’m proud to be part of the event group of a serious world firm that leads modem know-how. On a extra private observe, I discover it fascinating to see how what I realized from theories can really be applied in lots of circumstances when utilized to merchandise,” stated Lee when requested why he was so drawn to modems. “Immediately, having seamless phone conversations anytime and anyplace and the high-speed web expertise have develop into a elementary a part of life. The factor that has allowed us to expertise this handy life is modems, and the Modem Growth Crew is keen about persevering with to play its position in these developments.”



Making an Intensive Connectivity Atmosphere That Works Rapidly and Fluidly


The 2 principal telecommunication requirements for cell wi-fi communications are mobile networks and connectivity. The mobile community represented by the 3GPP customary5 refers to telecommunication requirements resembling CDMA, LTE and 5G. It offers a variety of service coverages in sure bandwidths licensed for cell carriers and does this through the infrastructure of assorted base stations. Connectivity, alternatively, is represented by IEEE 802.11(Wi-Fi)/802.15 (Bluetooth, ZigBee, UWB6). It makes use of Business-Science-Medical (ISM) bandwidth that can be utilized by anybody. Connectivity follows native telecommunication requirements for indoors and offers service to all.


▲ The varieties of Wi-Fi protocols for wi-fi connection


“Mobile community” is a service with an infrastructure primarily based on mobility and is especially operated by establishing networks that cowl large areas. Alternatively, “connectivity” offers wi-fi entry amongst units inside a brief distance with out utilizing infra-networks established by operators. This enables for the comfort of portability with out wires. Particularly, Wi-Fi boasts a quicker transmission velocity extra reliably than mobile networks over comparatively lengthy distances, particularly indoors. This is the reason Wi-Fi is so extensively used for connecting cell phones, laptops and so forth. Similar to peer-to-peer (P2P), Wi-Fi is best for selective and intensive telecommunication that may, when mandatory, facilitate excessive transmission speeds. This makes it extra acceptable for next-generation IoT units, resembling Augmented Actuality (AR) and Digital Actuality (VR) units.


Today, it’s exhausting to even think about each day life with out Wi-Fi. It’s straightforward to overlook that, simply 20 years in the past, Wi-Fi was not anticipated to develop into essentially the most commonplace wi-fi knowledge telecommunications know-how. Nevertheless, because the business expanded to smartphone-based know-how, the conclusion grew that Wi-Fi was the best methodology of response to in the present day’s knowledge visitors explosion. Because of the decrease price of establishing and working when in comparison with mobile networks it’s a methodology that’s nonetheless rising exponentially.


Not like mobile programs utilizing infra-networks, the info hyperlink vary of a Wi-Fi community can solely be prolonged up to some hundred meters, so it’s emphatically native. As well as, because it makes use of unlicensed bandwidth, it may be affected by interference from different telecommunication programs, making it dangerous for supporting superior High quality of Service (QoS).7 Nevertheless, as mobile and Wi-Fi convergence know-how advances, it continues to supply an enormous comfort: an undisrupted consumer expertise. All around the world, Wi-Fi has lengthy gone past being seen as a particular know-how and is as a substitute handled extra like a public infrastructure.


“Again in 2016, a devoted group was set as much as get Wi-Fi know-how to the purpose the place it might be built-in into the Exynos processor,” stated Joonsuk Kim, Govt Vice President of the Connectivity Growth Crew. Kim was the group chief when the Connectivity Crew was first established when becoming a member of Samsung in 2016. “In solely about 4 to 5 years, we accomplished the event of the legacy protocols all the best way as much as the sixth technology of Wi-Fi (Wi-Fi 6) by reaching technological stability and readiness. Though there was not sufficient funding or expertise, our know-how caught up in only a quick time frame,” he recalled.



▲ Exynos’ Wi-Fi know-how nearing the market chief in solely six years


After its success in creating and commercializing Wi-Fi 6E, in addition to all of the earlier Wi-Fi protocols, Samsung Electronics is now creating Wi-Fi 7, which is focused for subsequent technology flagship as a discrete modem. Since Wi-Fi wants to supply connection for all cell and IoT units supporting the most recent protocol, it’s essential that the efficiency of all legacy protocols is improved and maintained and that the efficiency of the newest protocol is equally secured. This newest protocol Wi-Fi 7 will seemingly be expanded to the market from 2024. It boasts the Multi-Hyperlink Operation (MLO),8 a channel bandwidth of 320MHz and 4096QAM.9 Via these capabilities, Wi-Fi 7 may have some great benefits of quicker knowledge transmission velocity, elevated knowledge transmission quantity, improved energy effectivity and the flexibility to help undisrupted wi-fi connectivity, even in an atmosphere the place customers abound.


▲ The scale of the Wi-Fi market is projected to develop from 4.7 billion in 2022 to six billion in 2027.
Supply: LANCOM (Survey Digital Coverage in Germany), TSR (June 2022)


With a view to additional improve the quick transmission speeds of Wi-Fi, the interior processor core must develop into extra complicated than it presently is, and an inner reminiscence with a big capability is required.


“To make this occur, we’re staying targeted on analysis and growth of multi-processor constructions, and on securing the mental properties mandatory for quick transmission,” Kim stated. “Till now, corporations in different international locations have been the principle gamers main the event of Wi-Fi options. However the Wi-Fi know-how of Exynos is the one Wi-Fi resolution in Korea that’s commercialized on a big scale. I’m assured that, in the case of embedded Wi-Fi options for cell SoC, our know-how comes second to none,” Kim stated.


That is essential, as a result of, in the case of Wi-Fi, solely the most effective is nice sufficient for purchasers. Though most individuals, on the whole, don’t understand how a lot of a complicated know-how Wi-Fi actually is, they do count on to have the ability to entry quick, uninterrupted Wi-Fi nearly wherever they’re.


“Many customers acknowledge revolutions in mobile networks, such because the LTE and 5G, as superior applied sciences, due to their commercial as main options of telephones in cell carriers’ energetic advertising and marketing,” stated Kim. “Nevertheless, against this, folks don’t fairly appear to acknowledge how shortly Wi-Fi know-how is evolving.”


▲EVP Joonsuk Kim has been engaged on connectivity know-how for 20 years.


Nevertheless, when requested if he thinks the position of Wi-Fi will nonetheless be essential sooner or later, Kim was firm.


“The information transmitted via Wi-Fi lately makes up 70 to 80%10 of total wi-fi knowledge visitors,” he stated. “Mobile networks and connectivity know-how pursue totally different utilization eventualities and this isn’t more likely to change any time quickly. Wi-Fi know-how and mobile know-how ought to advance collectively by complementing one another. Because the position of knowledge know-how (IT) turns into extra essential in our lives, the flexibility to attenuate dead-zones and supply steady connections and quick knowledge companies indoors will develop into essential for Wi-Fi know-how.”



To completely faucet into future applied sciences like augmented actuality (AR), digital actuality (VR) and the metaverse, quick velocity and low latency are essential.


“Wi-Fi makes use of low-frequency bandwidth, resembling 2.4GHz, 5GHz and 6GHz,” Kim defined. “So the diffraction is comparatively increased, and this allows the quick, steady transmission of knowledge.”


As 320MHz frequency turned usable with the supply of 6GHz bandwidth, connections between units with ultra-fast and low-latency might be achieved even quicker than initially anticipated. Kim emphasised the position of Wi-Fi development on this course of. On the identical time, the Connectivity Growth Crew developed and accomplished the commercialization of the most recent specification (BT5.2), Bluetooth and GNSS that efficiently entered the Flagship by making use of L5 satellite tv for pc and sensor correction know-how for high-performance positioning, and not too long ago indoor positioning with accuracy inside a number of centimeters. Kim defined that if UWB know-how, which has been developed for measurement and is in preparation for its first industrial use, might be mixed, it could possibly exert sturdy energy in lots of high-spec IoT companies and purposes sooner or later.


“To assist our newest merchandise lead the market customary, to safe competitiveness and sustainability sooner or later and to verify stability and compatibility are achieved effectively prematurely, I personally hope that we implement wi-fi entry factors11 and enter the related product market to take action,” Kim stated.



Defending Your Privateness on Smartphone: Safety That Strengthens a Separate Safety Operation Atmosphere (iSE)


Smartphones play a whole lot of roles lately. Two significantly vital such roles are identification playing cards and wallets. Take biometrics, cell identification (eID) and Samsung Pay, for instance. These companies usually require customers to confirm their id, and there may be all the time the chance that hacking can happen within the means of consumer verification. As such, a degree of safety that goes past the software program degree known as for, which suggests it’s required on the {hardware} degree and even in semiconductors.


The semiconductor that gives safety in smartphones known as the Safe Component (SE) semiconductor. There’s a separate embedded Safe Component (eSE) situated outdoors the SoC, however, with Exynos 2020, an built-in Safe Component (iSE) is embedded within the safety block contained in the SoC.


“The title we’ve given to the challenge that focuses on iSE embedded in Exynos is ‘STRONG,’ which is an abbreviation of Safe Tamper-Resistant of Subsequent Technology,” stated Jongwoo Lee, Vice President of the Design Platform Growth Crew. “The iSE is a separate atmosphere inside the SoC that operates safety applications. The iSE performs not solely the position of the eSE which might be individually embedded on the skin however it could possibly management the safety of the SoC as effectively. Superior processing means it boasts excessive efficiency, and it additionally permits secure enlargement to exterior reminiscence, resembling DRAM and Flash. These many roles might be taken even additional and shield the SoC within the energetic safety module.”


▲ (From left) Keunyoung Park from the AP S/W Growth Crew, VP Jongwoo Lee, PL Bogyeong Kang and Sunghyun Kim from the Design Platform Growth Crew are doing their utmost to strengthen the safety atmosphere in cell units.


The iSE is used for system safety and safety companies. System safety is concentrated on strengthening the safety of the system itself, and safety companies are targeted on the knowledge of customers that’s held inside cell units, like cell identification, cost and automobile keys.


“Originally of this 12 months, we completed the PoC (Proof of Idea) and succeeded in creating the iSIM,12 essentially the most relevant service utilizing iSE,” Lee stated. “This was a results of shut cooperation between Samsung Analysis, which is accountable for the iSE Safe OS (Camelia), and the digital safety firm Thales, which is in cost of creating the iSIM Software.”


The iSIM is an upgraded model of the embedded SIM (eSIM) and it integrates the perform of the SIM inside the SoC. This offers comfort for customers as a result of it permits them to vary their cell provider with out altering their SIM card, have greater than two telephone numbers directly and make use of assorted cell provider companies on one system. From the attitude of smartphone producers, the iSIM offers benefits as effectively, as a result of it lets them take away the SIM card slot and cut back the house wanted for elements: iSIM might be operated inside the SoC with no separate semiconductor, as is the case with discrete eSIM.


▲uSIM, eSIM and iSIM measurement comparability


What makes the event of the iSIM so vital is the intense issue builders encounter in assembly the technological atmosphere necessities for embedding iSIM.


“The iSIM wants to satisfy International System for Cell Communications (GSMA) necessities,” stated Lee. “Which means embedding the iSIM over the OS software program and {hardware} above a sure safety degree, a degree referred to as CC EAL4+.13 Nevertheless, we’ve {hardware} that operates one degree increased than this guideline: CC EAL5+. We even have safe exterior reminiscence the place giant SIM profiles might be embedded.”



“We’re the one firm that may present each the eSE and iSE, that are the premise for the eSIM and iSIM,” Lee continued. “So we will present options that smartphone producers can simply and flexibly undertake. Personally, I imagine there isn’t any such factor as ‘excellent’ within the space of safety, however we’re working exhausting to get as near excellent as is technologically doable. Our groups will proceed to make fixed effort in offering a high-level safety operation atmosphere that may accommodate the various totally different security measures totally different platforms present.”



1 Digital communication: A way of changing an analog sign right into a digital sign, transmitting it to the opposite get together and changing it again into an analog sign that may be acknowledged by people. Excessive-quality and large-capacity communication are doable in comparison with analog communication.

2 Cell broadband: A know-how that gives high-speed multimedia Web companies to cell units resembling smartphones and pill PCs.

3 New Radio (NR): A 5th technology cell communication know-how. Consists of sub-6 GHz and mmWave (millimeter wave, excessive frequency band of 24-100 GHz band). Though mmWave has some great benefits of ultra-high velocity, ultra-low latency and super-connectivity, it has the drawback of poor diffraction.

4 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE): An American affiliation {of electrical} and digital engineers and the world’s largest technical group.

5 3rd Technology Partnership Undertaking (3GPP): A cell communication standardization know-how cooperation group based in December 1998 to determine worldwide requirements associated to wi-fi communication, resembling GSM, WCDMA, GPRS and LTE.

6 Extremely-Wideband (UWB): A way that lowers most transmit energy to lower than -41.3 dBm/MHz in order to not interrupt different wi-fi. Nevertheless, it makes use of large bandwidth (500MHz) to realize comparably excessive knowledge charges.

7 High quality of Service (QoS): This refers back to the assure of communication service high quality, delay time or knowledge loss price beneath a sure degree on the community. It additionally refers to a communication service degree agreed or outlined prematurely. In different phrases, it’s a generic time period for varied applied sciences that intelligently match the transmission demand of assorted purposes to a given community useful resource by allocating community sources resembling bandwidth and precedence with the intention to ship knowledge to a vacation spot shortly, at a relentless velocity and reliably.

8 Multi-Hyperlink Operation (MLO): The know-how that operates varied channels of various frequency bandwidths on the identical time.

9 4096 QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation): A modulation methodology for transmitting knowledge by shifting and adjusting the amplitude and section of the in-phase provider sign and quadrature-phase provider sign. It’s advantageous when a considerable amount of knowledge must be transmitted in a slender transmission bandwidth. 12bits per image in a 4096QAM

10 Supply: February 22, 2019

11 Wi-fi Entry Level: The low-power wi-fi system that performs the position of a base station in wi-fi LAN. It is usually known as a Wi-Fi extender, Wi-Fi amplifier or wi-fi extender.

12 iSIM (built-in SIM): A built-in subscriber identification module. Additionally referred to as ieUICC (built-in embedded common built-in circuit card)

13 Frequent Standards Analysis Assurance Stage (CC EAL): Frequent Standards (CC) is a world customary for evaluating the safety of IT merchandise and sure web sites. Analysis Assurance Stage (EAL) is a grade that’s assigned to analysis assurance.

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