Gender differences, macroeconomics, and trends in early attempts at cigarette smoking among adolescents: results from 147 countries | Medicine BMC

Desk 1. Traits of research contributors. A complete of 456,634 adolescents aged 12-16 years from 147 international locations throughout six WHO areas had been analyzed (Africa: 36; America: 27; Southeast Asia: 10; Europe: 34; Jap Mediterranean: 20; The Western Pacific: 20) on this. Pattern sizes in them vary from 442 within the Cook dinner Islands to 13,274 within the Russian Federation.

Desk 1 Traits of the World Youth Tobacco Survey

Determine 1 reveals the nationwide prevalence of early makes an attempt at first cigarette smoking for girls and boys. Seventy-nine (54.1%) international locations had a prevalence of early makes an attempt at first cigarette smoking 10% for boys, with a prevalence higher than 20% in Estonia, Lithuania, Russian Federation, East Timor, Latvia, Palau, Cook dinner Islands, Republic of Moldova, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Hungary, Indonesia, Micronesia, Czech Republic, New Zealand, Slovakia, Ukraine and Tonga, 23 international locations (15.8%) had a prevalence of early makes an attempt to smoke the primary cigarette ≥10% for ladies, with prevalence higher than 20% in Estonia, Lithuania, Cook dinner Islands, Latvia, Palau and Mt. Black and Hungary. There was the next prevalence of early makes an attempt at first-time cigarette smoking for ladies than for boys in Montenegro, the Maldives, and Antigua and Barbuda.

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shape 1

Nationwide prevalence of early makes an attempt at cigarette smoking amongst adolescent girls and boys based mostly on the newest World Youth Tobacco Surveys from 147 international locations.

Desk 2 reveals the prevalence of early makes an attempt at first cigarette smoking amongst younger adolescents in response to WHO areas, revenue teams, PPP/per capita, and FCTC certification standing. The imply prevalence of early makes an attempt to smoke the primary cigarettes was 12.2% (95% CI: 10.9–13.5) for males and 6.7% (95% CI: 5.8–7.6) for ladies, with a big distinction. The distinction applies broadly to most WHO areas, revenue teams, and per capita buying energy parity. There have been variations within the prevalence of early makes an attempt at first cigarette smoking throughout WHO areas, with the best prevalence of 17.4% for boys and 10.7% for ladies within the European area, which is increased than in Africa, the Jap Mediterranean area, and the Americas ( 9.1%, 9.7%, and 10.8% for males and 4.3%, 6.3%, and 4.6% for ladies, respectively). The prevalence of early makes an attempt at cigarette smoking was 8.0% in low-income international locations, 11.5% in lower-middle-income international locations, 12.0% in upper-middle-income international locations, and 15.6% in high-income international locations for boys. The corresponding prevalence for ladies was 3.4%, 5.2%, 7.0%, and 10.1%, respectively. As per capita buying energy parity elevated, the prevalence of early makes an attempt at cigarette smoking elevated from the primary to the fourth quartile however decreased within the prime quintile (Q5) for each sexes. The very best prevalence fee was noticed within the fourth quartile group by way of buying energy parity per capita. The prevalence of boys was increased than that of ladies within the different PPP/per capita classes (ie, Q1, Q2, Q3, and Q5), aside from the This autumn PPP/per capita group, the place no vital distinction was noticed between the sexes. Nonetheless, there was no vital distinction within the prevalence of early makes an attempt to smoke cigarettes by FCTC ratification standing.

Desk 2 Prevalence of early makes an attempt at first cigarette smoking amongst adolescents

The imply age at first cigarette smoking was 12.0 years (95% CI: 11.9-12.2) for males and 11.9 years (95% CI: 11.6-12.1) for ladies. The age window when smoking the primary cigarette was between 10.5 and 12.5 years for each sexes (Desk 3). In low-income international locations, the age at first cigarette smoking amongst women, 10.7 years (95% CI: 10.0-11.4), was considerably older than that of boys, 11.8 years (95% CI: 11.4-12.2). As well as, the age at smoking the primary cigarette for ladies in low-income international locations was sooner than women in upper-middle-income and high-income international locations, with ages of 12.3 years (95% CI: 12.0-12.6) and 12.4 years (95% CI: 12.2-12.7), respectively. Ladies first tried smoking at a youthful age than boys within the lowest PPP quintiles (Q1). Nonetheless, no vital gender variations had been noticed within the PPP/particular person classes (Q2-Q5). With growing per capita buying energy parity, the age at first cigarette smoked regularly elevated in women (s for pattern <0.001) however not in boys (s for pattern = 0.334) (Desk 3). Ladies experimented with cigarette smoking 0.6 years, 0.6 years, and 1.0 years sooner than boys within the areas of Africa, Jap Mediterranean, and Southeast Asia, respectively, and the corresponding age interval at first cigarette smoking decreased to eight.5–12.5 years from 10.5–12.5 years.

Desk 3 Developments in early makes an attempt at cigarette smoking amongst adolescents

Determine 2 reveals the age distribution of first cigarettes smoked amongst adolescent girls and boys smoking in response to nation revenue, buying energy parity and WHO area. Of the adolescents who smoke cigarettes, 16.0% reported having tried cigarettes at 7 years of age, 10.5% at 8-9 years, 16.6% at 10-11 years, 29.6% at 12-13 years, 24.4% at 14-15 years, and a pair of.9% at 16 years of age for ladies and 13.2%, 11.4%, 18.7%, 30.7%, 22.7% and three.3% for boys, respectively. For women, the common proportion who reported smoking their first cigarette as younger as 12 years outdated was 58.1% in low-income international locations, 47.3% in lower-middle-income international locations, and 36.8% in upper-middle-income international locations and 35.5% in low-income international locations. excessive revenue international locations. For buying energy parity quintile, the corresponding percentages had been 55.7% within the first quartile, 46.5% within the second quartile, 40.3% within the third, 38.4% within the fourth, and 34.6% within the fifth. For boys, the common proportion who reported smoking their first cigarette at age <12 was 46.6% in low-income international locations, 45.3% in lower-middle-income international locations, and 40.5% in upper-middle-income international locations and 41.8% in low-income international locations. excessive revenue international locations. For buying energy parity quintile, the common proportion was 46.0% within the first quarter, 42.8% within the second quarter, 42.9% within the third, 43.5% within the fourth, and 41.1% within the fifth. Greater than 30% of smoking adolescents reported having smoked their first cigarette on the age of <12 years in all six areas, and 1 in 2 women had tried smoking a cigarette earlier than the age of 12 years within the African area (53.9%) and the Southeast Asian area. (54.0%).

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Figure 2

Age distribution at first cigarette smoking amongst adolescents by nation revenue, buying energy parity and WHO area

Determine 3 reveals adjustments in AARR within the prevalence of the primary cigarette smoked earlier than age 12 years on the nationwide degree. For boys, 77.1% (54/70) of nations had a constructive change in AARR prevalence, starting from 0.6% in Morocco to fifteen.6% within the Republic of Korea, whereas 22.9% (16/70) had a unfavourable change in AARR, starting from −0.4% within the UAE to fifteen.1% in East Timor, of which 50% (8/16) got here from the Jap Mediterranean area, 25% (4/16) got here from the Southeast Asian area and 18.8% (3/16) They got here from the African area. For women, 70% (49/70) of nations had a constructive change within the prevalence of makes an attempt to smoke cigarettes earlier than the age of 12 years, starting from 0.1% in Lebanon to 23.1% in Bangladesh, whereas 30% of nations (21/70) had Its unfavourable change in AARR, ranged from . 21) got here from the Southeast Asian area, and 23.8% (5/21) got here from the African area.

Figs. 3
Figure 3

Common annual fee of decline within the prevalence of early makes an attempt to smoke cigarettes (ie smoking first cigarette earlier than age 12 years)

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